Dengue Fever: The Most Common Mosquito-borne Viral Disease

Dengue fever is a mosquito borne disease caused by dengue virus and is spread though the bite of the Aedes Mosquito. Dengue Fever and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (a more severe form) are the most common mosquito-borne viral diseases in the world.

Dengue Infographic

Aedes mosquitoes are identified by the black and white stripes on their body. Mosquitoes become infected when they bite infected humans, and later transmit infection to other people they bite. To prevent dengue fever, make sure precautions is taken to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes. Frequently check your house and potted plants to ensure that there is no stagnant water.

Symptoms

dengue symptoms

The symptoms usually develop within 4-7 days after being bitten by an infected mosquito. Symptoms of classic dengue include:

  • High fever (up to 40.6 C)
  • Severe headache with retro-orbital (behind the eye) pain
  • Severe joint and muscle pain
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Body rash which appears on day 3 or 4

Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever is a severe form of dengue fever which can result in death and is characterized by:

  • Severe bleeding from the nose, gums, or under the skin causing purplish bruises

Dengue Shock Syndrome is the most severe form which usually occurs in children having a re-infection and is sometimes fatal. It often presents with:

  • Massive bleeding
  • Shock (very low blood pressure)


Diagnosis & Treatment

Dengue fever is diagnosed by doing two blood tests 2 to 3 weeks apart which will determine if the blood samples contain antibodies to the virus.

There is no specific treatment for dengue fever and most people recover within 2 weeks. To help with recovery, general measures include:

  • Getting plenty of bed rest
  • Drinking lots of fluids
  • Taking medicine to reduce fever. Avoid aspirin but paracetamol is considered safe

For severe dengue symptoms including shock and coma, hospitalization and aggressive emergency treatment with fluid and electrolyte replacement may be necessary to save lives.

Most people with dengue fever recover completely within 2 weeks. The more clinically severe dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndromes can result in vascular (blood vessel) and liver damage, and can be life-threatening.


Prevention

The best way to prevent dengue fever is by taking precautions to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes which include:

  • Using a mosquito repellent containing DEET, or oil of lemon and eucalyptus
  • Dressing in protective clothing during the day-long-sleeved shirts, long pants, socks, and shoes especially in early morning hours before day break and in late afternoon after dark.
  • Keeping unscreened windows and doors closed
  • Getting rid of areas where mosquitoes breed, such as standing water in flower pots, containers, and bamboo poles.
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